Literature Cited

Alpert, P. 2006. Constraints of tolerance: why are desiccation-tolerant organisms so small or rare? Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 1575-1584.

Alpert, P. and M. J. Oliver. 2002. Drying without dying. pp. 3-43 In M. Black & H. W. Pritchard (eds.), Desiccation and Survival in Plants: Drying without Dying. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U.K.

Bachtrog, D., M. Kirkpatrick, J. E.. Mank, S. F. McDaniel, J. C. Pires, W. R. Rice, and N. Valenzuela. 2011. Are all sex chromosomes created equal? Trends in Genetics 27: 350-357.

Barker, D. H., L. R. Stark, J. F. Zimpfer, N. D. McLetchie, and S. D. Smith. 2005. Evidence of droughtinduced stress on biotic crust moss in the Mojave Desert. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 939-947.

Beerli P. and J. Felsenstein 2001. Maximum likelihood estimation of a migration matrix and effective population sizes in n subpopulations by using a coalescent approach. PNAS 98: 4563-4568.

Beerli P. 2006. Comparison of Bayesian and maximum likelihood inference of population genetic parameters. Bioinformatics 22: 341-345.

Belnap, J. 2002. Nitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts from southeast Utah, USA. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 128-135.

Belnap, J. and O. L. Lange. 2003. Structure and functioning of biological soil crusts: a synthesis. pp. 471479 in J. Belnap & O. L. Lange, eds, Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management. Ecological Studies vol. 150. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Belnap, J., D. M. Miller, D. R. Bedford, and S. L. Phillips. 2014. Pedological and geological relationships of soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA. Journal of Arid Environments 106: 45-57.

Blomberg, S. P., T. Garland Jr., A. R. Ives, and B. Crespi. 2003. Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57: 717-745.

Bowker, M. A., J. Belnap, D. W. Davidson, and S. L. Phillips. 2005. Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: potential to impact aridlands restoration. Ecological Applications 15: 1941-1951.

Bowker, M. A., D. J. Eldridge, J. Val, and S. Soliveres. 2013. Hydrology in a patterned landscape is coengineered by soil disturbing animals and biological crusts. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 14-22.

Bowker, M. A., F. T. Maestre, and C. Escolar C. 2010. Biological crusts as a model system for examining the biodiversity-function relationship in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42: 405-417.

Bowker, M. A., L. R. Stark, D. N. McLetchie, and B. D. Mishler. 2000. Sex expression, skewed sex ratios, and microhabitat distribution in the dioecious desert moss Syntrichia caninervis (Pottiaceae). American Journal of Botany 87: 517-526.

Chaudhary, V. B., M. A. Bowker, T. E. O’Dell, J. B. Grace, A. E. Redman, N. C. Johnson, and M. Rillig. 2009. Untangling the biological controls on soil stability in semi-arid shrublands. Ecological Applications 40: 2309-2316.

Coe, K. K., J. Belnap, E. E. Grote, and J. P. Sparks. 2012a. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO 2 : evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance. Physiologia Plantarum 144: 346-356.

Coe, K. K., J. Belnap, and J. P. Sparks. 2012b. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses. Ecology 93: 1626-1636.

Cruz de Carvalho, R., A. Bernades da Silva, R. Soares, A. M. Almeida, A. V. Coelho, J. Marques da Silva, and C. Branquinho. 2014. Differential proteomics of dehydration and rehydration in bryophytes: evidence towards a common desiccation tolerance mechanism. Plant, Cell & Environment 37: 1499-1515.

Dilks, T. J. K. and M. C. F. Proctor. 1979. Photosynthesis, respiration and water content in bryophytes. New Phytologist 82: 97-114.

Drábková L. Z. 2014. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens. Methods in Molecular Biology 1115: 69-84. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-767-9_4.

Elshire R. J., Glaubitz J. C., Sun Q., Poland J. A., Kawamoto K., Buckler, E.S., and Mitchell, S.E. 2011. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for high diversity species. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19379

Farrant, J. M., A. Lehner, K. Cooper, and S. Wiswedel. 2009. Desiccation tolerance in the vegetative tissues of the fern Mohria caffrorum is seasonally regulated. Plant Journal 57: 65-79.

Felsenstein, J. 1985. Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist 125: 1-15.

Fischer, T., M. Veste, A. Eisele, O. Bens, W. Spyra, and R. F. Hüttl. 2012. Small scale spatial heterogeneity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) and hot spots of photosynthesis in biological soil crusts. Flora – Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 207: 159167.

Gabriel, W. 2005. How stress selects for reversible phenotypic plasticity. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18: 873-883.

Gaff, D. F. and M. Oliver. 2013. The evolution of desiccation tolerance in angiosperm plants: a rare yet common phenomenon. Functional Plant Biology 40: 315-328.

Gallego, M.T. 2005. A taxonomic study of the genus Syntrichia Brid. (Pottiaceae, Musci) in the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia . J. Hattori Lab. 98: 47-122.

Glime, J. M. 2007. Bryophyte Ecology. Volume 1. Physiological Ecology. Chapters 6-10, Ebook sponsored by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists. accessed on 9 March 2015 at

Green, T. G. A., L. G. Sancho, and A. Pintado. 2011. Ecophysiology of desiccation/rehydration cycles in mosses and lichens. pp. 89-120 in U. Lüttge, E. Beck, & D. Bartels (eds.), Plant Desiccation Tolerance, Ecological Studies 215, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Helyar, S. J., J. Hemmer-Hansen, D. Bekkevold, M. I. Taylor, R. Ogden, M. T. Limborg, A. Cariani, G. E. Maes, E. Diopere, G. R. Carvalho, and E. E. Nielsen. 2011. Application of SNPs for population genetics of nonmodel organisms: new opportunities and challenges. Molecular Ecology Resources 11: 123-136.

Herms, D. A. and W. J. Mattson. 1992. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 283-335.

Herrick, J. E., W. G. Whitford, A. G. de Soyza, J. W. Van Zee, K. M. Havstad, C. A. Seybold, and M. Waltun. 2001. Soil aggregate stability kit for field based soil quality and rangeland health evaluations. Catena 44: 27-35.

Hohenlohe, P. A., S. Bassham, P. D. Etter, N. Stiffler, E. A. Johnson, and W. A. Cresko. 2010. Population Genomics of Parallel Adaptation in Threespine Stickleback using Sequenced RAD Tags. PLoS Genetics 6(2): e1000862.

Horsley, K., L. R. Stark, and D. N. McLetchie. 2011. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sexspecific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment? Annals of Botany 107: 897-907.

Hutsemékers, V. O. J. Hardy, P. Mardulyn, A. J. Shaw, and A. Vanderpoorten. 2010. Macroecological patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the aquatic moss Platyhypnidium riparioides. New Phytologist 185: 852-864.

Jones M. R. and J. M. Good. 2015. Targeted capture in evolutionary and ecological genomics. Molecular Ecology 25: 185-202.

Koster, K. L., R. A. Balsamo, C. Espinoza, and M. J. Oliver. 2010. Desiccation sensitivity and tolerance in the moss Physomitrella patens: assessing limits and damage. Plant Growth Regulation 62: 293302.

Liu, L., L. Yu, and S. V. Edwards. 2010. A maximum pseudo-likelihood approach for estimating species trees under the coalescent model. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 302.

Maddison, W. P. 1990. A method for testing the correlated evolution of two binary characters: are gains or losses concentrated on certain branches of a phylogenetic tree? Evolution 44: 539-557.

Mandel, J. R., R. B. Dikow, V. A. Funk, R. Masalia, S. E. Staton, A. Kozik, R. W. Michelmore, L. H. Rieseberg, and J. M. Burke. 2014. A target enrichment method for gathering phylogenetic information from hundreds of loci: an example from Compositae. Applications in Plant Sciences 2: 1300085

McKown, A.D., R. D. Guy, L. Quamme, J. Klapste, J. La Mantia, C. P. Constabel, Y. A. El-Kassaby, R. C. Hamlin, M. Zifkin, and M. S. Azam. 2014. Genome-wide association implicates numerous genes underlying ecological trait variation in natural populations of Populus trichocarpa. New Phytologist 203: 535-553.

Mishler, B. D. 1985. The phylogenetic relationships of Tortula: an SEM survey and a preliminary cladistic analysis. Bryologist 88: 388-403.

Mishler, B. D. 1990. Reproductive biology and species distinctions in the moss genus Tortula, as represented in Mexico. Systematic Botany 15: 86-97.

Mishler, B. D. 1994. Tortula. p. 319-350 In A. Sharp, H. Crum, & P. Eckel (eds.), The Moss Flora of Mexico. Pt. 1. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 69, New York.

Mishler, B. D. 2005. The logic of the data matrix in phylogenetic analysis. In V.A. Albert (ed.), Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics, p. 57-70. Oxford University Press, New York.

Mishler, B. D. 2007. Syntrichia. p. 618-627 In Flora North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora North America, Vol. 27, Bryophytes: Mosses, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York.

Mishler, B. D., N. J. Knerr, C. E. González-Orozco, A. H. Thornhill, S.W. Laffan, and J. T. Miller.2014. Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia. Nature Communications 5: 4473.

Mishler, B. D. and M. J. Oliver. 2009. Putting Physcomitrella on the Tree of Life: the evolution and ecology of mosses. pp. 1-15 In: C. Knight, P.-F. Perroud & D. Cove (eds), The Moss Physcomitrella patens. Annual Plant Reviews 36, Wiley-Blackwell, Chicester, UK.

Nei, M. and A. K. Roychoudhury. 1974. Sampling variances of heterozygosity and genetic distance. Genetics 76: 379-390.

Newton, A. E. and B. D. Mishler. 1994. The evolutionary significance of asexual reproduction in mosses. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 76: 127-145.

Nicotra, A. B., O. K. Atkin, S. P. Bonser, A. M. Davidson, E. J. Finnegan, U. Mathesius, P. Poot, M. D. Purugganan, C. L. Richards, F. Valladares, and M. van Kleunen. 2012. Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate. Trends in Plant Science 15: 684-692.

Oldenhof, H., W. F. Wolkers, J. L. Bowman, F. Tablin, and J. H. Crowe. 2006. Freezing and desiccation tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens: an in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1760: 1226-1234.

Oliver, M. J., J. Velten, and B. D. Mishler. 2005. Desiccation tolerance in bryophytes: a reflection of the primitive strategy for plant survival in dehydrating habitats? Integrative and Comparative Biology 45: 788-799.

O’Mahony, P. and M. J. Oliver. 1999. The involvement of ubiquitin in vegetative desiccation tolerance. Plant Molecular Biology 41: 657-667.

Pichrtová, M., J. Kulichová, and A. Holzinger. 2014. Nitrogen limitation and slow drying induce desiccation tolerance in conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) from polar habitats. PLoS One 9: 1-12.

Pigliucci, M. 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: where are we going now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 481-486.

Poland J. A., Brown P. J., Sorrells M. E., Jannink J. 2012. Development of high-density genetic maps for barley and wheat using a novel two-enzyme genotyping-by-sequencing approach. PLoS ONE 7(2): e32253

Proctor, M. C. F. 2001. Patterns of desiccation tolerance and recovery in bryophytes. Plant Growth Regulation 35: 147-156.

Proctor, M. C. F., M. J. Oliver, A. J. Wood, P. Alpert, L. R. Stark, N. L. Cleavitt, and B. D. Mishler. 2007. Desiccation-tolerance in bryophytes: a review. Bryologist 110: 595-621.

Raj, A., M. Stephens, and J. K. Pritchard. 2014. fastSTRUCTURE: Variational inference of population structure in large SNP datasets. Genetics 197: 573-589.

Reed, S. C., K. K. Coe, J. P. Sparks, D. C. Housman, T. J. Zelikova, and J. Belnap. 2012. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility. Nature Climate Change 2: 752755.

Schonbeck, M. W. and J. D. Bewley. 1981. Responses of the moss Tortula ruralis to desiccation treatments. I. Effects of minimum water content and rates of dehydration and rehydration. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 2698-2706.

Stark, L. R. 1983. Bisexuality as an adaptation in desert mosses. American Midland Naturalist 110: 445448.

Stark, L. R. 2014. Developing a conceptual ecological model for desiccation tolerance in bryophytes: first steps. Botanical Society of America and American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Boise, ID (abstract/presentation).

Stark, L. R. and J. C. Brinda. 2015. Developing sporophytes transition from an inducible to a constitutive ecological strategy of desiccation tolerance in the moss Aloina ambigua: effects of desiccation on fitness. Annals of Botany 115: 593-603.

Stark, L. R., J. C. Brinda, D. N. McLetchie, and M. J. Oliver. 2012. Extended periods of hydration do not elicit dehardening to desiccation tolerance in regeneration trials of the moss Syntrichia caninervis. International Journal of Plant Sciences 173: 333-343.

Stark, L. R., J. L. Greenwood, J. C. Brinda, and M. J. Oliver. 2013. The desert moss Pterygoneurum lamellatum exhibits inducible desiccation tolerance: effects of rate of drying on shoot damage and regeneration. American Journal of Botany 100: 1522-1531.

Stark, L. R., J. L. Greenwood, J. C. Brinda, and M. J. Oliver. 2014. Physiological history may mask the inherent inducible desiccation tolerance strategy of the desert moss Crossidium crassinerve. Plant Biology 16: 935-946.

Stark, L. R., D. N. McLetchie, and B. D. Mishler. 2001. Sex expression and sex dimorphism in sporophytic populations of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Plant Ecology 157: 183-196.

Stark, L. R., D. N. McLetchie, and B. D. Mishler. 2005. Sex expression, plant size, and spatial segregation of the sexes across a stress gradient in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Bryologist 108: 183-193.

Stark, L. R., B. D. Mishler, & D. N. McLetchie. 1998. Sex expression and growth rates in natural populations of the desert soil crustal moss Syntrichia caninervis. Journal of Arid Environments 40: 401-416.

Stark, L. R., B. D. Mishler, and D. N. McLetchie. 2000. The cost of realized sexual reproduction: assessing patterns of reproductive allocation and sporophyte abortion in a desert moss. American Journal of Botany 87: 1599-1608.

Stark, L. R., L. Nichols II, D. N. McLetchie, and M. L. Bonine. 2005. Do the sexes of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis differ in desiccation tolerance? A leaf regeneration assay. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 21-29.

Stark, L. R., L. Nichols II, D. N. McLetchie, S. D. Smith, and C. Zundel. 2004. Age and sex-specific rates of leaf regeneration in the Mojave Desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. American Journal of Botany 91: 1-9.

Stark, L. R., J. C. Brinda, and J. L. Greenwood. 2016. Propagula and shoots of Syntrichia pagorum (Pottiaceae) exhibit different ecological strategies of desiccation tolerance. Bryologist, in press.

Stenøien, H. K., A. J. Shaw, B. Shaw, K. Hassel, and U. Gunnarsson. 2010. North American origin and recent European establishments of the amphi-Atlantic peat moss Sphagnum angermanicum. Evolution 65: 1181-1194.

Testo, W. L. and J. E. Watkins. 2012. Influence of plant size on the ecophysiology of the epiphytic fern Asplenium auritum (Aspleniaceae) from Costa Rica. American Journal of Botany 99: 1840-1846. Tetteroo, F. A. A., F. A. Hoekstra, and C. M. Karssen. 1995. Induction of complete desiccation tolerance in carrot (Daucus carota) embryoids. Journal of Plant Physiology 145: 349-356.

Vander Willigen, C., N. W. Pammenter, M. A. Jaffer, S. G. Mundree, and J. M. Farrant. 2003. An ultrastructural study using anhydrous fixation of Eragrostis nindensis, a resurrection grass with both desiccation-tolerant and -sensitive tissues. Functional Plant Biology 30: 281-290.

Volgmayr, H. 2000. Nuclear DNA amounts in mosses (Musci). Annals of Botany 85: 531-546.

Wardle, D.A. 1999. Is “sampling effect” a problem for experiments investigating biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships? Oikos 87: 403-407.

Webb, C. O., D. D. Ackerly, M. A. McPeek, and M. J. Donoghue. 2002. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 475-505.

Windig, J. J., C. G. F. De Kovel, and G. De Jong. 2004. Genetics and mechanics of plasticity. p. 31-49 In T. J. DeWitt & S. M. Scheiner (eds), Phenotypic plasticity, Oxford University Press, New York. Wood, A. J. and M. J. Oliver. 1999. Translational control in plant stress: the formation of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in response to desiccation of Tortula ruralis gametophytes. The Plant Journal 18: 359-370.

Zander, R. H. 1993. Genera of the Pottiaceae: Mosses of Harsh Environments. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 32: 1-378.